Block Diagram Of Computer System – A typical computer system irrespective of its size, class or type consists of hardware and software, integrated and synchronized together to perform computational work or data processing. Computer Anatomy is concerned with the way the various functional units operate and how they are connected together to form the computer system.
Block Diagram Of Computer System
A computer system consists of the following functional units –
- Input Unit
- Memory / Storage Unit
- CPU (Central Processing Unit)
- Output Unit
The Block Structure of a Computer is Shown In Figure depicts the working of computer and it’s various functional units.
As the computer process, the data according to the instructions given to it and produces the results. The input unit is used to feed the data as well as instructions to the computer. The commonly used input devices are keyboard, mouse, scanner, joystick, etc.
In brief, an input unit performs the following functions –
- It accepts or reads the list of data and instructions from the user.
- It converts these data and instructions in a computer acceptable form.
- It supplies the converted data and instructions to the computer system for further processing.
Memory (Storage Unit)
The basic function of this unit to store the data, instructions and final results in the system so that it can deliver them on demand to the user or other computer units at a later time. The data and instructions are transferred to other computer units or devices from the main storage under the supervision of the control unit. It also referred to as primary Storage.
Primary storage is a direct access storage device, consisting of a number of storage locations. Each location in the store has a unique number, called Storage Address. The system assigns a unique location for each data element. Once the data is assigned to the location, the system accesses it directly by means of the address of the particular storage locations.
The various types of primary Storage are –
- RAM (Random Access Memory)
- ROM (Read Only Memory)
- Cache Memory
- Virtual Memory
The data and instructions in Primary Storage (RAM) are temporary in nature and they are erased automatically as soon as the power is switched off. The user can access the data from secondary storage whenever required.
Some commonly used secondary storage devices that are used to store the data permanently are –
- Floppy Disk
- Hard Disk
- Compact Disk
- Magnetic Tape
Central Processing Unit (CPU)
CPU is considered as the brain of the Computer. It is also called a microprocessor. It is the fastest and costly unit of the computer system. All major calculations and comparisons are made inside the CPU. CPU Converts all the supplied input into the required output as per the instructions supplied by the user. The performance and the speed of the computer mainly depend upon the type of microprocessor installed in it.
With CPU, there exists a temporary storage location known as registers. These are used for storage of smaller data up to 64 bits. Registers are being used for faster data supply to the processor for processing. The number, size, and capacity of the register in a CPU can affect the processing power.
The CPU further contains Two Units –
- A control unit is a major component of the computer which helps in the functioning of the central processing unit and in turn, runs the whole computer.
- The control unit works as a supervisor of the monitor in the system. it supervises or controls all the activities of various functional units of the computer.
- It fetches transfers the required instructions from the main memory, interprets them and then send them to ALU for processing.
- It controls the execution of an instruction in a sequential order.
- It works as a central nervous system of the computer it controls the flow of data to and from the main memory.
- It sends and receives control signals from various peripheral devices.
- It ensures that data reaches the correct place at the correct time.
ALU (Arithmetic & Logical Unit)
- The function of ALU is to perform the actual calculations on the computer. It performs arithmetic (addition, Subtraction, multiplication, & division) and logical (Comparison or decisions) Calculations in the computer.
- In some Computer processors, the ALU is divided into two distinct parts, the AU And LU. The AU performs the arithmetic operations and the LU performs the logical operations.
- ALU has internally two temporary registers into which the incoming data from memory is loaded and then operated.
4. Output Unit
Output Unit – During Data processing, the Computer process the data according to the instruction applied to it and produces the result or Output. The Output Unit is used to provide the results to the user. The Commonly used output devices are monitor or VDU (Visual Display Unit), Printer, plotter, speakers, etc.
In brief, an output unit performs the following functions –
- It accepts the results produced by the computer that is in binary form.
- It converts these binary-coded results to human acceptable.
- Finally, it supplies the converted results to the user.
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